History Of The People

Nana Osei Tutu succeed Nana Obiri Yeboa as the chief of Kwaman state later known as Kumase state. During his enstolment he promised his people that he would take up the great task of uniting the Asante states.  He was helped to achieve this aim by the great priest and chief of Agona, Nana Okomfo Anokye. Nana Osei Tutu and Okomfo Anokye were enstooled at the same time, Osei Tutu as Kwamanhene, Okomfo Anokye as Agonahene. Nana Osei Tutu succeeded his uncle Obiri Yeboa while Okomfo Anokye succeeded his brother Okomfo Yemoa.

According to oral tradition a meeting of the chiefs of Asante states was called by Nana Osei Tutu of Kumase. The main agenda was to unite under one of the chiefs. His stool would be greater than all the other stools,then the question of “who would be chosen the as head” appeared.

It was at this juncture that Okomfo Anokye explained that the problem would be solved be the ancestors and the gods. He would pray to the ancestors and the gods. At the end of the prayer, the ancestors and the gods would send a stool from the skies and the chief on whose laps it would descend and rest would be the chosen chief. According to oral tradition a festive Friday ” Fofie” was chosen to be the day that they would meet for the gods and ancestors to choose their king for them.  When they agreed on the day, they were told by Okomfo Anokye to fast and pour libation to their ancestors and the gods until the chosen day. Then they dispersed to their various states.

On the appointed day, the chiefs met, each waiting to be the paramount chief elect.  The atmosphere looked calm. Okomfo Anokye appeared amidst drumming and dancing.  After some magical dances he paused a little, jumped here and there and began to call something from the sky.  Drumming started again and the priest conjured. The sky became tense and a deafening noise was heard. Then a stool studded with gold descended on the laps of Nana Osei Tutu. It therefore meant that he had been chosen by the ancestors and the gods as the unquestionable king of the kings of the Asante Nation.

Finger nails and a small collection of hair from each chief were collected, all burnt and the ashes, some smeared on the stool and the rest mixed in palm wine for all to drink.

Okomfo Anokye told them that the stool contained the spirit of the Asante Nation.  The potion they drank meant that they had sworn to the gods, which meant they had taken an oath to unite and forget their past individual histories.  Osei Tutu took the oath of allegiance to the stool and the chiefs, and each chief in turn took an oath of allegiance to Nana Osei Tutu and an oath never to raise arms against the Golden Stool. That was the beginning of Asante Kingdom, Nana Osei Tutu was therefore made the first king of the Asante kingdom.

His first task was to avenge the defeat the states had suffered from the Dormaa people. This was carried out without delay and in a fearful battle the Dormaa people were defeated and driven from Suntreso where they were, to a far away place. This was in about 1698. Though the state was defeated, it was annexed into the Asante Kingdom and their king was made “the soul Washer” of Asantehene. Giving post to a defeated chief was a new strategy the new kingdom had adopted.  Okomfo Anokye had ruled that any state they would defeat would not be called a defeated state with their people regarded as servants but would be treated as brothers, with their chief given an important position in the kingdom.

The next task was to wage war against their masters, the Denkyira people.  They had long found out that Denkyira people had been treating them with contempt. They were not satisfied with even the commodities(tribute) they were asked to send to Denkyira every Akwasidae. Firewood fetching was the work done by women, Red clay was used by women for house decoration and this was not the job for men, Plantain fibre was used as toilet article and that too was fetched by women. The Asantes therefore understood the whole issued of the Denkyira king asking their men to carry these commodities to Denkyira meant that they were being regarded as women.  All put together was an insult to the men Asante.

It was during the time when this debate was going on that Ntim Gyakari, the new of king Denkyira who succeeded the late Boseanti, send messengers to them with some demands which sparked the anger of the Asantes.

The demands were:

     •     a) That they were to send the Golden Stool to him because he was the overlord.

     •     b) That they should dissolve their union because they did not seek permission before its formation.

     •     c) That they should stop talking against Denkyira men who had sex with the young Asante women who went serve at Denkyira, because it was a blessing for any woman who became pregnant by a Denkyira man, since she would get a baby with royal blood in him who would be better fit to occupy a stool in Asante.

     •     d) That each chief was to cut off one of his fingers and add to the gold dust to be sent to Denkyira.

  •     e) That each chief was to send his favourite wife to Denkyira to serve the king’s court.

To the chiefs, the gold dust was not difficult, but the demand for the Golden stool which contained the spirit of the nation and which they had vowed to protect.  That was the last straw that broke the camel’s back.

Again no maimed person was allowed to occupy a stool in the Asante Nation, therefore if that king was demanding their fingers, then he was destooling them. They also viewed the demand for their wives to serve at the king’s court as downright disrespected for Asante manhood.

The Asante prefers death in war to such insult. At this point they were silent for a while, then the of Dwabenhene, Adaakwaa Yiadom, rose up, condemned the whole message and swore to avenge.  All the other chiefs supported him. They therefore filled the brass basin with stones to be sent to Ntim Gyakari instead of the gold dust he was demanding.  They ordered executioners to cut the fingers of the messengers and add to the stones and also to kill the warrior among the messengers.  Their action meant that they had declared war on Denkyira.  What next? Was there any possibility that they could match their overlord?

They were sure their great priest and king of Agona, Nana Okomfo Anokye would help solve the problem for them. He had performed wonders during their war with Dormaa people, so they knew he would repeat the feat.

Okomfo Anokye when consulted assured them that they would be victorious provided some men would give themselves up for sacrifices.  Three men would be needed for the sacrifices. One would be buried alive.  His hands would appear at the surface of the earth and two brass pans full of war medicine mixed in water would be put in the two palms for the warriors to bath before they left for the war front.  The second volunteer would be butchered to death and his flesh thrown away for vultures to take to Denkyira land.  Wherever any piece of the flesh would fall the men of the place would lose their bravery and become cowards.  The third volunteer should be a paramount chief. He would be armed and he would be in front of the marching soldiers. He was not a to fire a shot even if he met an enemy. He should look on for the enemy to shoot him.

It was only when he fell that the Asante Nation would be victorious. If he did not conform to that and he shot a gun that would be the doom of the Asante Nation.

Those who volunteered were:

     •     i. Nana Asenso Kofo, chief of Adwumkasekese. He was buried alive.

     •     ii. Nana Dikopim I, chief of Edweso, gave himself up to be butchered to death.

     •     iii. Nana Tweneboa Kodua, Paramount of Kumawu, also gave himself up. He led the marching soldiers. Though he was armed, he was forbidden to shoot: therefore he was killed.

After all the purifications and the necessary preparations, Nana Osei Tutu prepared to lead the Nation as War General.

Okomfo Anokye asked Nana Osei Tutu to stay at home and ask another to lead. His explaination was that though Asante Nation would win the war, whoever led as the War General would not live beyond seven days after the war. Here too Nana Boahen Anantuo chief of Mampong, volunteered to lead the soldiers to the war.

He, however, asked that since he was taking the place of Asantehene as War General, his stool should be next to that of Asantehene.  Asantehene was occupying the Golden Stool therefore his state should occupy a Silver Stool.  This was granted.

Like Boahen Anantuo, the first three volunteers also made requests.  Asenso Kofo requested that his after death, nobody from his town, Adwumakasekese, should ever be killed or sacrificed in any form.  Dikopim, the chief of Edweso, also requested that nobody from his clan, Asona, should be sacrificed in any form. Nana Tweneboa Kodua also requested that nobody from his state should ever be sacrificed in any form.

Again, whenever a drummer from any of the Asante states started drumming on Atumpan drums, his appellation should be sounded to remind future generations that they too should sacrifice themselves for the Asante Nation.

When all was set, the chiefs swore to Nana Osei Tutu that they would forever push forward, never would they retreat.

The advance guard was led by Tweneboa Kodua while Boahen Anantuo led them as War General.  Okomfo Anokye himself was at the war front and provided the magical antidotes. The battle was fierce but with determination, the Asante Nation was victorious.

The king of Denkyira, Ntim Gyakari, was captured at Feyiase and beheaded. Denkyira thus became subject to Asante.

The chiefs who sat together to plan the Denkyira war were:

Nana Osei Tutu I                                          –       King of Asante

Nana Tweneboa Kodua                               –       Chief of Kumawu

Nana Boahen Anantuo                                –       Chief of Mampong

Nana Adaakwaa Yiadom                             –       Chief of Dwaben

Nana Onompau                                           –       Chief of Asumegya

Nana Kofi Dwaa Ayeboafo                         –       Chief of Bekwai

Nana Agyeman Ampomfi                           –       Chief of Kokofu

Nana Oduro Panin                                       –      Chief of Nsuta

Nana Wiafe Akenten                                   –      Chief of Offinso

Nana Dikopim                                             –       Chief of Edweso

Nana Krobea                                               –       Chief of Tafo

Nana Okomfo Anokye                                –       Chief of Agona

After the Denkyira war, Asante Nation continued fighting to extend her borders.

According to oral tradition, Adansi was a powerful state before Denkyira subdued it and made it her vassal.  When the Asante states became united and decided to fight Denkyira, Adansi was contacted but she refused to join them and instead left for Akyem because she was not prepared for war.

However, after the defeat of Denkyira, they came back to their land and agreed to form part of the Asante Kingdom.  This was during the reign of Nana Osei Tutu.

The two most important wars waged by Nana Osei Tutu were Dormaa war and the Denkyira war.  The defeat of Denkyira earned Asante Nation the documents on the Elmina Castle which hitherto, were in the possession of Denkyira.

Nana Osei Tutu’s reign was a great landmark in the history of Asante Kingdom.  It was during his reign that Asante Nation sprang from independent small states to form a strong union under one king and became a kingdom.  He organized the Nation on military base, grouping the states into various war flanks.  He built Kumase as the capital of the kingdom. It was during his reign that Elmina Castle became the property of the Asante Nation.  Many of the laws governing the kingdom were made during his reign. According to oral tradition, he instituted the Odwira Festival in the kingdom after the defeat of Denkyira.

Nana Osei Tutu laid a solid foundation for the Asante Nation. However, he gave too much freedom to the conquered states and allowed their chiefs to rule over the subjects instead of appointing ambassadors to the conquered states. This policy gave the states freedom to organize their army to fight Asante again for their independence. One of such rebellions was that raised by Boadu Akefun, the chief of Denkyira who succeeded Ntim Gyakari.  Osei Tutu had to send his army to fight and conquer Denkyira again, just a year after the first war.

Legends have it that some of the clans of Asante Nation originated from a hole at Asantemenso near Asumegya.  The clans were Oyoko and Aduana. Some of the remaining clans too, state that their ancestors descended from the skies.

However, research by Historians like Dr. J.B. Dankwa reveal that the Asante nation was among the group of people called Akans, These Akan people migrated from Mesopotamia to Africa.

They continue to state that the Akans either shared the same boundaries with the Israelites or were of the same stock as the to them, the formed part of the Ancient Ghana Empire.  They moved southwards in search of arable land to farm. Other factors which hurried their southward movement were wars and desire for religious freedom.

     1     Inter-empire was created instability at their places of abode therefore they moved southwards into the forest belt to avoid constant warfare and to get the peace needed for their farming ventures.

  2     hen the Moslem religion started in Arabia and entered North Africa, people were forced to accept the new religion, but Akans worshipped God through the lesser gods who they claimed to be the linguist to the supreme God. They therefore migrated into the forest belt to have religious freedom.

They first settled in the present Northern Ghana at Gonjaland. This was in the 13th century.  The area used to be a forest region; From Gonjaland, they migrated southwards into the thick forest along river valleys.  Pioneering work was done by hunters who prepared places under trees with buttresses as their hunting huts.

The hunters were joined by some relatives who followed them to give them help. Others did farming at such places.

The Akans were made up of the following people: Akwamu Guan, Fante, Denkyira, Brong, Akyem, Kwahu, Sefwi, Wassa, Asante Akwapim` and Assin. They might have migrated in their individuals groups.

In the their southward migration, the Asantes settled at the Adanse area. Oral tradition does not state when this took place, neither does it state the ruler who led them to the Adanse area. The probable time might be the 14th century. Since they were always moving from place to place, they did not build houses but lived in caves and under the buttresses of mighty trees to protect themselves from wild animals.  Others lived on trees for protection. As such if some clans claimed that they originated from a hole or they descended from the skies, the truth could not be accepted anthropologically. It might be that they were coming down from the trees on which they lived but were not descending from the sky.

The early ancestors of the Asantes lived in clans.  The clans were the following: Oyoko, Bretuo, Aduana, Asona, Asene, Ekuona, Agona and Asakyiri.  People belonging to a clan claimed to be the children of one woman, so they were brothers and sisters. Since it was a taboo for brothers and sisters to marry each other, when one needed a partner, one had to go to another clan for the partner.  This system of inter-marriage resulted in the creation of alliances among clans, therefore one clan had to go to the aid of another when the latter was attacked because nobody would want to see his children taken into captivity.

When the population increased, they started to move away from Adanse area to build new townships.  This was in the 15th century: large towns with historical importance in those days were Dwaben, Asumegya, Kokofu, Nsuta, Mampong, Bekwai, Edweso, Agona Kasse, Kontanase, Buokrom and Tafo.  Which were also of historical importance.  As time went on, the states started waging wars with one another on minor provocations, therefore they could not stand any attack from another tribe because of disunity. When tracing the history of Asante Kingdom, kings like Nana Twum, Nana Antwi, Nana Kobia Amamfi, Nana Oti Akenten and Nana Obiri Yeboa were not ruling over the whole Asante Nation.  They were rulers of their Oyoko Clan.  Nana Twum and Nana Antwi ruled over the clan at Asantemanso. Nana Kobia Amamfi ruled over them at Asumegya.  Nana Oti Akenten and Nana Obiri Yeboa ruled over them when they settled at Kwaman which later became Kumase.  There were strong connections between these kings and the kings of Kokofu, Nsuta, Dwaben and Bekwai because they were all of the Oyoko clan and descended from one ancestress.

Love prevailed among these clan states and the other Asante clan state like Mampong, Kumawu and Offinso. But with time petty wars developed among the states. These inter-state wars were at their peak during the reign of Nana Obiri Yeboa. The wars paved the way for their opponents from other tribes to conquer them.  The result was that the Asante states became very weak and were conquered by Denkyira states so they served Denkyira and paid regular tribute to her.  The tribute was in the form of firewood, plantain fibre and red clay. It was at this juncture that Nana Obiri Yeboa, king of Kwaman had a dream that the states should come together to form a united front, fight and free themselves from bondage.

He revealed this dream of Okomfo Yamoa of Agona, the elder brother of Okomfo Anokye of Asante fame.  According to oral tradition, Okomfo Yemoa interpreted the dream to Nana Obiri Yeboa that his ancestors had come to compare the Asante states to a broom which when bound together was difficult to break but when the sticks were taken apart one by one were breakable.  He therefore, advised him to a meeting of all Asante states chiefs and put their message of unity as he saw in the dream to them.

Nana Obiri Yeboa call the meeting and put the message across.  All the chiefs agreed that they were badly treated by their master, the king of Denkyira. They were not happy with the way they being treated. States around Mampong and Nsuta were sending red clay to Denkyira every Akwasidae. States around Dwaben were sending plantain fibre and the remaining states firewood, every six weeks. Young men and young women were the carries of the commodities to Denkyira.  At Denkyira, the young men were made to weed round the outskirts of the capital, Abankeseso, to keep the area clan.  The young women were made to sweep the streets of the capital. In addition, the men of Denkyira could have sex with the young women from Asante who went to serve, whether they were married to other men or not. It was no crime because the people of Denkyira were the masters of the land and the people of Asante were their servants, therefore they thought it a blessing if the Asante girls became pregnant since they were going to give birth to babies with royal blood, who would be fit to occupy the stools in Asante. These were grievances of all the chiefs.

Though some of the chiefs supported the idea of unity among Asante States others expressed some problems and fear.  The first of the problems was the question of the one to be head.

Most of them were of the same status, commanding a number of towns and people. Who then was to be the overlord?

The next points was, Giving power to one person to lord it over them” they were not prepared to kow-tow others. The third point was, how their ancestors who would come to them on the solemn days like Akwasidae, would be served. Here the debate was on the type of food to be served if all their stools were sent to the paramount chief-elect.

After a lengthy discussion, they agreed to form a loose confederation in which each state would be independent in all matters except defense. They decided to appoint a war leader who would gather them together to fight to defend themselves if any of the other Akan states around them invaded any of their towns.  Nana Obiri Yeboa was chosen to be the war leader.

The confederation had hardly gained any roots when the Dorma Brong state which was very close to them, on hearing the impending unity, took arms and defeated them state by state.  Nana Obiri Yeboa met his death as a result of sword wounds inflicted on him during the war.  According to oral tradition, other chiefs who met their death in the same war were: Okomfo Yemoa of Agona and Dwamena Akenten of Offinso.

This defeat taught the Asante states a great lesson therefore they decided to form a stronger union to enable them stand any future aggression.

The Asantes are the largest group among the Akan Communities that have always inhabited the southern and forest areas of this part of the Guinea Coast of West Africa which came to be called the Gold Coast. Together with their kinsmen, the Fantes, Akims, Akwapims, Denkyiras, Kwuhus, Sefwis, etc they constitute the singly largest ethnic community in what is today the modern State of Ghana, and have since the seventeenth Century exerted considerable influence on the political, cultural and economic life and development of this area of West Africa.

The King of Asante was founded in the seventeenth century by the union of previously separate, independent communities of the same cultural identify and ethnic origins, to free themselves from domination by Denkyira, another organized Akan community which interposed itself between them and the coast and denied them direct access to the trade which the Europeans conducted from their forts and castles. The need to control trade to the North and South for the survival of the new kingdom rather than mere military gain inspired the rapid expansion of Asante in the century following its foundation as a United Kingdom. The Asantes were so constantly at war with their neighbours to the North and South that the political structure which their new kingdom evolved was much influenced by, and could be understood only in terms of, of the military organization with which they defended themselves and pursed and safeguarded their commercial and other economic interests.

The need to control the trade to the North in Kola, gold and other items of commerce brought Asante into contact with Dagomba and Gonja in the North East and Jaman in the North West; and the trade with the castles and forts on the coast brought Asante into conflict with their kinsmen in the Fante States and ultimately with the British with whom they fought seven wars in nineteenth century.

From its capital, Kumasi, Asante controlled the trade routes to the North through Salaga in the North East and Bontuku in the North West, and was in commercial contact with the Moshie and other states in the savanna and beyond the Sahel region, from where regular caravans carried merchandise in exchange for the gold and kola produced in the forest regions. By the middle of the 18th Century, Asante had become the dominant Kingdom in the forest belt of the ‘Gold Coast’ of the Guinea Coast and provided a vital link between the coast and the savanna areas to the North and contributed to its own acculturation and the assimilation of the many communities that it came into contact with. Asante was described on a 1764 French map of Africa as “Roy de ‘lL’Asiante, tres puissant” (very powerful)

Today, as in the past Asante remains the largest single community among the traditional communities that constitute modern Ghana, and continues to make significant contributions to the country’s economy. Richly endowed, it is the economic heartland of the country, responsible for much of its domestic food production and for the foreign exchange it earns from cocoa, gold and timber.

Asante is the only region in Ghana with a common language, where paramount chiefs in the region and beyond owe allegiance to an overlord king the Asantehene.

This arrangement has strengthened the unity of Asante, the most populous region in Ghana towards economic, social and cultural development.

Request:  After the burial of Asantehene, tradition requires that the Golden Stool should not be left vacant for more than forty days. The Gyaase then made a request to Asantehemaa, who is regarded as the authority on the genealogy of the ruling kings, for a new king to occupy the Golden Stool. Electing an Asantehene has never been easy. There is intensive lobbying of rival candidates. The influence of public opinion on the selection of an Asantehene makes the Asante succession process a combination of hierarchical system and election.

Nomination:  There is extensive lobbying by various chiefs and people on behalf of their preferred candidates. This is usually a tense time and each candidate must being to act as a possible Asantehene. Each candidate is expected to seclude himself from public appearance and ensure good behaviour. The period between the acceptance of the drinks of a candidate who makes a formal request through another chief and his nomination is crucial for the confirmation of the character of the candidate.

  In practice the Queen mother engages in elaborate and discreet consultations among influential and knowledgeable people. The principle of selection makes it imperative that Asantehemaa’s choice is acceptable to both the Kumasi Traditional and Asanteman Councils. The Asantehemaa therefore summoned the elders of the royal family after her extensive consultations. They carefully considered the various candidates who had formally requested to be Asantehene. They agreed on Barima Kwaku Duah and the Queen mother presented his name to the Gyaasehene who then informed the Krontihene- head of the non- Gyaase (household) division of the Kumasi State.

Introduction to Gyaase: The nominee was introduce to the Gyaase and if there were any reservation about his candidature they were expected to voice them out or remained silent. Objections raised should be based on substantive evidence such a crime, imprisonment, terminal disease, disability or loss of any of his body. No objections were raised so they congratulated and advised him.

After the Gyaase accepted Barima Kwaku Dua as the nominee, he was put under the protection and guidance of Nana Saaman Nantwi (Saamanhene) who is the head of the four division of the Gyaase. The process of introduction of the Queen Mother’s nomination continued with remaining Kumasi chiefs at Bantamahene’s palace. No objections (such as any of the above) were raised and all the principal chiefs, Krontihene Bantamahene, Akwamuhene, Nifahene, Adontenhene Benkumhene, Oyokohene and Kyidom accepted him as Kumasihene. He was then introduced to the Kumasi Traditional Council and was acclaimed and accepted. White clay or powder was put on his shoulders to indicate his acceptance. He then paid an aseda fee to them for bestowing the honour and responsibility on him and also to confirm his acceptance and contribution towards the preparations of his installation. Bantamahene then appointed a delegation of chiefs and linguist to inform Mamponghene (who is the Awisiahene, chief of orphans, chief mourner and acting Asantehene) of the selection of a successor and convene a meeting of Asanteman Council to consider the candidate.

Meeting of Asanteman Council: In order that the Kumasihene –elect might assume the position of Asantehene, a meeting of all Asante chiefs outside Kumasi in Apremso was convened for them to approve of the nomination. At this meeting the Kumasi Traditional Council sent a formal delegation to the Asanteman Council to inform them about the candidate. In a closed door discussion they reviewed the candidate and after satisfying themselves approved him as Asantehene. This meeting was chaired by Mamponghene on 1st April 1999 in a closed –door meeting of all paramount owing loyalty to the Golden Stool. They came from both the Ashanti region and outside the region. They then came to Dwabrem to ask to see the candidate who was brought out of confinement and introduced to the Council. Objections could have also been raised at this point. However, there were none. The Amanhene unanimously accepted and congratulated him at the gathering and advised him on how to conduct himself and govern. He was asked to pay another aseda fee (a fee for expressing appreciation).

Oath Swearing: After these formalities and advice from the various chiefs and linguist a date was set for the swearing ceremony. On that day he swore the oath of allegiance to the Kumasi Traditional Council. The Asantehene-elect swore as Otumfuo Osei Tutu II with the Mponponsuo sword at Dwabrem, the durbar grounds near Manhyia Palace, saying 

“I am the grandson of Osei and Poku

I am the grandson of Nana Bonsu

I am the grandson of Nana Agyeman

Nana Kwame Kyiretwie was my uncle

Opoku Ware II was my senior brother

Today my elder brother Opoku Ware is gone

to his village and if by the grace of Kumasi people

you have given his gun to me to rule,

if I do not rule well,

if I do not govern the state and protect you well

as my forefathers did,

I violate the great oath”

After this the various chiefs in the Kumasi Division including Krontire Akwamu, Nifa Benkum Adonten, Oyoko Kyidom, Gyaase, Ankobea and Nkosuo, heads of various palace attendants swore to him with their respective swords saying:

“I swear by the great oath that if do not exhibit the same loyalty and trust worthiness with which I helped your uncle to govern this nation during your reign but on the other hand I am less truthful, I have broken my oath”

Pampaso Rites:  The next events of the installation were the rites at Pampaso and Manhyia. Otumfuo Osei Tutu II arrived at a house near the Pampaso stool house in his officially Rolls Royce. He was carried in a small palanquin called Denkyemkye (in which he sits just once in his life) with two medium-sized umbrellas over his head, and rode in it to Pampaso. Tradition about Pampaso recalls that Opoku Ware was in the care of Pampasohemaa when he was requested to be released to become the next Asantehene after the death of Osei Tutu. Pampaso is also the historical site where the Golden Stool was conjured and where previous swearing took place. He was made to lean three times on Okomfo Anokye’s sacred Piesie spear which he planted there.

The Pampasohemaa during this ceremony became the mother of Asantehene and symbolically carried him on her back and handed him over to a select group of chiefs. The Wade-Adumakesehene was sent for from Denkyeminaso Stool house and all the state swords were assembled before Otumfuo before he could proceed to Pampaso Stool House. Inside the Stool House he was handed the Busumuru sword with which he swore. This is one of the seven keteafona swords kept by the Busumuruhene and it is the only one out of the seven used to swear by the Asantehene. He uses this to swear once in his life during this Pampaso ceremony. There were also other ceremonies such as sitting on the Asipim dwete (silver stool). These were the symbols and religious ceremonies, which set him apart as a sacred person with taboos, rituals and accompanying responsibilities. He then came out and publicly danced with the Busumuru sword to the tune of the Aprede drums before the Piesie spear. He also danced to the tune of Fontomfrom with the Mponponsuo sword in his right hand while Osei Tutu’s war shield was in his left hand.

He returned in the palanquin to another house where he changed into Batakarikese, a tradition wardress of Asante kings with many talismans sewn on it, as the commander-in chief of Asante army. He rode in a palanquin to Kumasi Sport Stadium in a long procession led by priests and priestesses, Gyaase, Mawere, Nkosuo and Ankobea divisions. Inside the stadium, he fired three gunshots, one each in front of Asantehemaa (the mother of the nation), Mamponghene (representing the right wing Division of Asante) and Essumejahene (also representing the left wing Division). This indicated his bravery and ability to lead Asantes to war.

Manhyia Rites: From the Kumasi Sports Stadium ceremony Otumfuo Osei Tutu II went to Manhyia Palace. He changed and dressed in the regalia attached to the Busumuru and Mponponsuo swords. He wore the denkyemkye on his head, held two swords in his left and right hands (Mponponsuo in his right and Busumuru in his left), and wore the Mpaboakese, “great sandals”, originally used by Osei Tutu. Then in a midnight ceremony the Mamponghene, as chief mourner and acting head of the Confederacy, supported by the Nifa (right wing) Adontehene(central body) Essumehahene, Benkumhene (left wing), Krontihene, Akwamuhene, Gyaase (chiefs household), Ankobea (advisors), Manwerehene, Akyempemhene and Kyidomhene (Rear Gurads) helped the Asantehene –elect and placed him three times on the Golden Stool. This established a spiritual link with his ancestors and the soul of the nation. Through these installation ceremonies, he became the spiritual, judicial, military and political leader of Asante.

  The last item handed over to him was the dwete koduo (silver container), in which there is an assortment of valuable items including gold dust. As he moves from one place to the other he is expected to use the treasure in it either as gifts or to make purchases. It is often seen whenever Asantehene is seated or moving. If this was not handed over to him he would not be considered properly installed. After Asantehene had sat on the Golden Stool all the Amanhene, Abrempong and other Asante chiefs, swore to him immediately in an all night ceremony and pledge their support and commitment to serve and obey his call day or night. Different types of swords were used to swear to him, for example the Amanhene and Abrempong used the Mponponsuo sword. This completed the installation ceremony of the candidates as Asantehene. He sat in state the following day and received congratulations from chiefs, other leaders and well wisher.